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Rice Wheat Cropping system is a major cropping system in Nepal representing one-fourth of the total cultivated land. 83% of the population are dependent on the system for income and employment. However, there are serious threats to sustainability of the Rice Wheat Cropping system in Nepal. The conventional practices are water, labor, and nutrient intensive. Puddling the soil for rice has degraded soil structure in the field and long turn-around period between rice and wheat has delayed wheat planting. Both have contributed to stagnant yield and therefore to low profitability of the Rice Wheat Cropping system. Various literatures related to conservation agriculture, its practices and its role in maintaining sustainable agriculture were studied and enough information were gathered for argument. Conservation agriculture practice mainly focuses on minimal soil disturbance, crop rotation and mulching. Conservation agriculture includes zero tillage, integrated nutrient management, alternate drying and wetting, bed planting and mulching, and crop rotation to diminish the threats to sustainability of Rice Wheat Cropping system. In Nepal, the extension work has been carried out as Climate Smart Agriculture which comes under Conservation Agriculture. However, less research and hesitation of farmers to adopt the technology have created hurdles in extension of conservation agriculture. Conservation Agriculture has proven itself to be the best cultivation practice to enhance productivity of any land without overexploiting the natural resources. Such technology is important to sustain our agriculture in future. Hence, CA is of utmost importance to sustain the livelihood of Nepalese farmers, which is, Rice-Wheat Cropping system of Nepal.