A REVIEW ON OVERVIEW ROLE OF MUTATION IN PLANT BREEDING

Author:
Rabindra Yadav, Sharada Gorathoki, Saroj Dhakal, Purnima BC, Aakash Shah, Sandhya Poudel

Doi: 10.26480/rfna.01.2021.39.42

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Genetic diversity is the basis for plant breeders to develop new and improved cultivars with desirable, suited, and adaptive characteristics. Several factors such as hybridization, recombination, and mutation (Spontaneous and induced) are useful measures for providing variation in plants. However, naturally occurring mutation rate offers less for their optimum utilization. Hence induced mutation is considered to be a prime alternative other than naturally occurring variation. It has been considered a verified way of creating new variation within a crop variety which offers a possibility for the induction of desirable attributes which either can’t be expressed in nature or have been faded away during the process of evolution. Some of the mutant varieties of several crop species have led to a global contribution to crop improvement. The fate of the induced mutation largely depends on how induced mutagenesis underpins plants’ functional genome. Plant mutagenesis is had already played a significant role in crop improvement by successful enhancement of the yield, better nutritional quality, and wider adaptability. This review article is primarily centered around mutation, selection of mutant, how and when to use induced mutation, their treatment dose, and roles of mutation in Plant Breeding. Lastly, there still lies a huge potential aspect for future crop improvement through the application of induced mutation in plant species. In barley, a mutant that is resistant to mildew was 1st recorded in 1942. From the 170 diverse plant species, 3222 mutant varieties are evolved in 60 countries across the world officially. That release of varieties is possible due to the extensive use of induced mutation for 50 years in plant breeding activities all over the world. The modification of the nucleotides sequence of the genetic material of an organism, virus, extrachromosomal DNA is called a mutation. Mutagen is the agent causing mutation. There is extensive use of mutants in different subjects such as genetics, plant breeding, and plant physiology. Hugo deVries coined the term ‘mutation’ in 1901 to show sudden alteration in character considered to be heritable. Hence transmittable to the offspring while an agent causing mutation is called a mutagen. Mutation can occur naturally (spontaneous mutation) or by different agents such as chemical mutagen, ultraviolet light, x-rays, gamma rays, and so on (induced mutation). Mutagenesis is defined as the process in which the genetic information of an organism changed in a stable manner resulted in mutation.

Pages 39-42
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 2